World Osteoporosis Day: Osteoporosis – Diagnosis and Treatment

World Osteoporosis Day (1)


Article Credits: Dr. Mrs. Rani Nandakumar, M.D., D.G.O., MICOG, Retired Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Senior Consultant Obstetrician, Gynaecologist, & Sonologist, Laparoscopic Surgeon and Specialised in Reproductive Medicine. She has 40 years of experience in obstetrics and gynaecology.

Osteoporosis – it means porous bone. That is bone tissue replacement as age advances. The normal appearance of bone tissue is honeycomb. As age advances larger spaces appear in honeycomb. More common in women than men. More faster after menopause i.e. after 45.

Causes for osteoporosis is due to:

  1. Lack of calcium deposition due to decrease in estrogen hormone level.
  2. Decrease in Vitamin D.
  3. Common in smokers and alcohol intake.
  4. Lack of weight bearing exercises.

Other Conditions:

  • Hyperparathyroid
  • Hyperthyroid
  • Autoimmune disease like rheumatoid arthritis
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Drugs like cortisone intake and blood thinning drugs such as heparin and warfarin
  • Antacids, anti-depressants, diuretics, excess vitamin A intake, chemotherapy for breast and prostate cancer and in type 2 diabetes


  • Osteoporosis is more common in long bones, hip joints, wrist and spinal cord.
  • Symptoms are pain in these bone regions.


  • Clinical diagnosis by X-rays and DEXA bone density testing.
  • The level of less than 2.5 in bone density shows osteoporosis.


  • Intake of calcium and Vitamin D.
  • Moderate exercise.
  • Diet supplements as cheese, milk, yogurt, green leafy vegetables, fish, tuna, salmon, intake of Vitamin D, soya protein intake.
  • Lifestyle modification with sunlight, walks and exercise.
  • Drug replacement with estrogen, biphosphonate, isoflavins.
  • 75% of osteoporosis is due to genetic factors.
  • Elders should avoid hazards (walking in slippery floor, dim lights), must have regular eye vision and rooms must be provided with good light, grab bars must be provided in all bathrooms.
  • Screening for osteoporosis is a must for all above 65 years.


Disclaimer: Views expressed are personal and may not reflect those of this organisation.

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